Baudot45 170   

Hörbeispiel Baudort 45 / 170

weiteres RTTY-Hörbeispiel
(100)

RTTY has been used by radio amateurs since the 1950s. Initially an electromechanical system designed for use on telephone wires, it was not conceived as a radio system, and could not be used by radio until the development of the Ratio Detector during the 1939-1945 war. RTTY (the name means simply Radio Teletype) uses FSK to avoid noise on the transmission path, but requires high power and is still prone to propagation effects, especially selective fading and multi-path timing.

Early RTTY equipment used separate oscillators for each of the tones, and so could produce very wide key clicks, requiring extra filters. Modern software uses phase coherent switching between tones, which somewhat improves the signal bandwidth.

With no error correction, and a start-stop system that is prone to false starts on noise, RTTY is not the best mode for amateur use. However, it is easy to use, easy to tune, fast, tolerant of drift, and is widely used for contesting for these reasons alone. A linear transmitter is not required.

BPSK31

Hörbeispiel BPSK-31

  

BPSK63

Hörbeispiel BPSK-63

  

BPSK125

Hörbeispiel BPSK-125

  

BPSK250

Hörbeispiel BPSK-250

             

QPSK31

Hörbeispiel QPSK-31

 

QPSK63

Hörbeispiel QPSK-63

 

QPSK125

Hörbeispiel QPSK-125

 

QPSK250

Hörbeispiel QPSK-250 

             
   

BPSK63F

Hörbeispiel PSK-63F

 

PSK125R

Hörbeispiel PSK-125R

 

PSK250R

Hörbeispiel PSK-250R

             
   

BPSK500

Hörbeispiel BPSK-500

 

QPSK500

Hörbeispiel QPSK-500

 

PSK500R

Hörbeispiel PSK-500R

weiteres PSK-31-Hörbeispiel


Narrow band modes such as PSK31 are low symbol rate, single carrier differential Binary PSK (called 2-PSK or BPSK) or Quadrature PSK (4-PSK or QPSK). With digital phase modulation the phase changes abruptly, and without additional measures wide sidebands would be created. To prevent this, all these modes also include 100% raised-cosine amplitude modulation (ASK) at the symbol rate, which reduces the power to zero at the phase change.

Because of this amplitude modulation, the signal bandwidth is relatively narrow. Synchronization at the receiver is straightforward because it can be recovered from the amplitude information. Differential PSK is used to provide continuous phase changes when idle (to maintain sync), and by allowing the receiver to measure phase difference from symbol to symbol, to reduce the effects of ionospheric Doppler phase changes which modulate the signal. The slower modes are more affected by Doppler, and the QPSK modes are particularly affected.

With no interleaver and limited coding length, the QPSK mode Forward Error Correction coding gain is limited, and under burst noise conditions (HF) the performance is usually worse than the BPSK option at the same baud rate. In general the narrow-band BPSK modes work well on a quiet single-hop path, but give poor performance in most other conditions.

To counter this lack of robustness under adverse conditions, the PSKR ("R" for "robust"), series of modes has been developed. Using a similar design as the MFSK modes with a convolutional encoder and an interleaver these modes provide a much more robust link at the expense of the data speed which is divided by half when compared to the standard BPSK mode. Soft bits decoding was also added to maximize the probabilities of decoding the right sequence.

With these modes, a very linear transmitter is required. Over-driven operation results in excessive bandwidth, poorer reception and difficult tuning. However, the sensitivity is such that very little power is usually required.

MFSK4

Hörbeispiel MFSK-4

  

MFSK8

Hörbeispiel MFSK-8

  

MFSK11

Hörbeispiel MFSK-11

         

MFSK16

Hörbeispiel MFSK-16

 

MFSK22

Hörbeispiel MFSK-22

 

MFSK31

Hörbeispiel MFSK-31

         

MFSK32

Hörbeispiel MFSK-32

 

MFSK64

Hörbeispiel MFSK-64

         
Hörbeispiel MFSK-16

MFSK16 and MFSK8 are multi-frequency shift keyed (MFSK) modes with low symbol rate. A single carrier of constant amplitude is stepped (between 16 or 32 tone frequencies respectively) in a constant phase manner. As a result, no unwanted sidebands are generated, and no special amplifier linearity requirements are necessary. The tones selected are set by the transmitted (4 or 5 bit) bit pattern and a gray-code table.

The mode has full-time Forward Error Correction, so it is very robust. Tuning must be very accurate, and the software will not tolerate differences between transmit and receive frequency. The mode was designed for long path HF DX, and due to its great sensitivity is one of the best for long distance QSOs and skeds. MFSK8 has improved sensitivity, but is very difficult to tune, and suffers more from Doppler. It is useful as the band fades out.

MFSK16 and MFSK8 were developed by Murray ZL1BPU and Nino IZ8BLY.

MT63 500

Hörbeispiel MT63 / 500

  

MT63 1000

Hörbeispiel MT63 / 1000

     

MT63 2000

Hörbeispiel MT63 / 2000

weiteres MT63-Hörbeispiel

MT63 is an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexed (OFDM) mode consisting of 64 parallel carriers each carrying part of the transmitted signal. The tones are differential BPSK modulated. MT63 employs a unique highly redundant Forward Error Correction system which contributes to its legendary robustness in the face of interference and fading.

The tones have synchronous symbols, and are raised cosine modulated. The mode requires a very linear transmitter. Over-driving leads to excessive bandwidth and poorer reception. The mode is unpopular with many operators because of the excessive bandwidth used.

The mode is very tolerant of tuning, as most software will handle 100Hz mistuning. The mode was designed by Pawel SP9VRC.

Thor4

Hörbeispiel THOR-4

  

Thor8

Hörbeispiel THOR-8

  

Thor16

Hörbeispiel THOR-16

         

Thor5

Hörbeispiel THOR-5

 

Thor11

Hörbeispiel THOR-11

 

Thor22

Hörbeispiel THOR-22

THOR is a family of offset incremental multi-frequency shift keyed modes with low symbol rate, closely related to DominoEX. A single carrier of constant amplitude is stepped between 18 tone frequencies in a constant phase manner. As a result, no unwanted sidebands are generated, and no special amplifier linearity requirements are necessary. The tones change according to an offset algorithm which ensures that no sequential tones are the same or adjacent in frequency, considerably enhancing the inter-symbol interference resistance to multi-path and Doppler effects.

The mode has full-time Forward Error Correction, so is extremely robust. The default speed (11 baud) was designed for NVIS conditions (80m at night), and other speeds suit weak signal LF, and high speed HF use. The use of incremental keying gives the mode complete immunity to transmitter-receiver frequency offset, drift and excellent rejection of propagation induced Doppler.

Throb1

Hörbeispiel THROB-1

  

Throb2

Hörbeispiel THROB-2

  

Throb4

Hörbeispiel THROB-4

         

Throb1X

Hörbeispiel THROB-1X

 

Throb2X

Hörbeispiel THROB-2X

 

Throb4X

Hörbeispiel THROB-4X

         
weiteres THROB-Hörbeispiel

The THROB family of modes are MFSK in nature, but are unusual in that (like DTMF) they use two tones at a time. Unique among other MFSK modes, the THROB family also uses amplitude modulation and sometimes sends just one tone!

The mode has no Forward Error Correction, is difficult to tune, but reasonably sensitive and moderately robust. Because of the limited character set however, the typing speed is reasonably good, one character per symbol. Tuning must be very accurate, and the software will not tolerate differences between transmit and receive frequency. THROB is essentially a curiosity mode.

Another unusual feature (which led to the name), THROB also includes raised cosine AM modulation of each symbol. This combined with two tones transmitted at the same time, means that a very linear transmitter is required.

For THROB, nine tones are used, spaced 8 or 16 Hz. For THROBX, 11 tones are used, spaced 7.8125 or 15.625 Hz.

The THROB family was developed by Lionel G3PPT.

Olivia8 500

Hörbeispiel Olivia 8/500

  

Olivia16 500

Hörbeispiel Olivia 16/500

  

Olivia32 1000

Hörbeispiel Olivia 32/1000

Olivia is a family of MFSK modes with a high redundancy Forward Error Correction system similar to MT63. The family is very large, with 40 or more different options, which can make it very difficult to work out which is which. The mode works well on poor HF paths and has good sensitivity, and is best used for fixed skeds.

The most widely used versions have a symbol rate of 31.25 baud. The typing speed is varied by changing the number of tones used, but can also be changed by change of baud rate. RTTYM and Contestia are variants of Olivia. The MFSK is constant phase, and the transmission constant amplitude, so transmitter linearity is inimportant. The modes are moderately tolerant of mis-tuning. The typing rate is very modest, given the high bandwidth used.

The mode was designed by Pawel SP9VRC

DomEX4

Hörbeispiel DominoEX-4

  

DomEX8

Hörbeispiel DominoEX-8

  

DomEX16

Hörbeispiel DominoEX-16

DomEX5

Hörbeispiel DominoEX-5

 

DomEX11

Hörbeispiel DominoEX-11

 

DomEX22

Hörbeispiel DominoEX-22

DominoEX is a family of offset incremental multi-frequency shift keyed modes with low symbol rate. A single carrier of constant amplitude is stepped between 18 tone frequencies in a constant phase manner. As a result, no unwanted sidebands are generated, and no special amplifier linearity requirements are necessary. The tones change according to an offset algorithm which ensures that no sequential tones are the same or adjacent in frequency, considerably enhancing the inter-symbol interference resistance to multi-path and Doppler effects.

The mode is normally used without Forward Error Correction, as it is very robust. The default speed (11 baud) was designed for NVIS conditions (80m at night), and other speeds suit weak signal LF, and high speed HF use. The use of incremental keying gives the mode complete immunity to transmitter-receiver frequency offset, drift and excellent rejection of propagation induced Doppler.

contestia 4 250

Hörbeispiel Contestia 4/250

  

contestia 8 250

Hörbeispiel Contestia 8/250

contestia 4 500

Hörbeispiel Contestia 4/500

 

contestia 8 500

Hörbeispiel Contestia 8/500

contestia 8 1000

Hörbeispiel Contestia 8/1000

 

contestia 16 1000

Hörbeispiel Contestia 16/1000

contestia 32 1000

Hörbeispiel Contestia 32/1000

   

Contestia is a family of MFSK modes with a high redundancy Forward Error Correction system similar to Olivia.  The mode works well on poor HF paths and has good sensitivity.  It is a mode designed to be used for contesting and keyboard to keyboard contacts.

The most widely used versions have a symbol rate of 31.25 baud. The typing speed is varied by changing the number of tones used, but can also be changed by change of baud rate.  The MFSK is constant phase, and the transmission constant amplitude, so transmitter linearity is inimportant. The modes are moderately tolerant of mis-tuning. The typing rate is very modest, given the high bandwidth used.

The mode was designed by UT2UZ.

FSQ 4.5   Hörbeispiel FSQ 4.5

FSQ is an Incremental-Frequency-Keyed mode using an offset differential modulation scheme similar to DominoEX, and Thor. It is a unique mode for fldigi users in that it is a line by line transmission rather than character by character. FSQ uses 33 tones spaced by 3 times the 3 baud symbol rate or 8.8 Hz. The offset rotation of the IFKP sequence offers improved performance under NVIS conditions, because the rotation significantly reduces the risk of adjacent symbols causing inter-symbol interference.

IFKP 1.0   Hörbeispiel IFKP 1.0

IFKP is a incremental frequency keyed mode with an offset of +1. It is designed for very high coding efficiency.  It uses 33 tones (32 differences) and a Varicoded Alphabet, with a rotating difference frequency.

   
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